Thursday, March 26, 2020

William shaksphere Essay Example For Students

William shaksphere Essay William Shakespeare was a great English playwright, dramatistand poet who lived during the late sixteenth and early seventeenthcenturies. Shakespeare is considered to be the greatest playwright ofall time. No other writers plays have been produced so many times orread so widely in so many countries as his. Shakespeare was born to middle class parents. His father, John, was a Stratford businessman. He was a glove maker who owned aleather shop. John Shakespeare was a well known and respected manin the town. He held several important local governmental positions. William Shakespeares mother was Mary Arden. Though she was thedaughter of a local farmer, she was related to a family of considerable wealth and social standing. Mary Arden and John Shakespeare were married in 1557. We will write a custom essay on William shaksphere specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now William Shakespeare was born in Stratford in 1564. He was oneof eight children. The Shakespeares were well respected prominentpeople. When William Shakespeare was about seven years old, heprobably began attending the Stratford Grammar School with otherboys of his social class. Students went to school year round attending school for nine hours a day. The teachers were strict disciplinarians. Though Shakespeare spent long hours at school, his boyhood wasprobably fascinating. Stratford was a lively town and during holidays, it was known to put on pageants and many popular shows. It also held several large fairs during the year. Stratford was a exciting place to live. Stratford also had fields and woods surrounding it giving William the opportunity to hunt and trap small game. The River Avon which ran through the town allowed him to fish also. Shakespeares poems and plays show his love of nature and rural life which reflects his childhood. On November 28, 1582, Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway ofthe neighboring village of Shottery. She was twenty-six, and he wasonly eighteen at the time. They had three children. Susana was theirfirst and then they had twins, Hamnet and Judith. Hamnet,Shakespeares son, died in 1596. In 1607, his daughter Susana gotmarried. Shakespeares other daughter, Judith, got married in 1616. In London, Shakespeares career took off. It is believed that he may have become well known in London theatrical life by 1592. Bythat time, he had joined one of the citys repertory theater companies. These companies were made up of a permanent cast of actors who presented different plays week after week. The companies werecommercial organizations that depended on admission from theiraudience. Scholars know that Shakespeare belonged to one of the mostpopular acting companies in London called The Lord ChamberlainsMen. Shakespeare was a leading member of the group from 1594 forthe rest of his career. By 1594, at least six of Shakespeares plays had been produced. During Shakespeares life, there were two monarchs who ruledEngland. They were Henry the eighth and Elizabeth the first. Bothwere impressed with Shakespeare which made his name known. Thereis evidence that he was a member of a traveling theater group, and aschoolmaster. In 1594, he became an actor and playwright for LordChamberlains Men. In 1599, he became a part owner of the prosperous Globe Theater. He also was a part owner of the Blackfriars Theater as of 1609. Shakespeare retired to Stratford in 1613 where he wrote many of his excellent plays. There are many reasons as to why William Shakespeare is sofamous. He is generally considered to be both the greatest dramatistthe world has ever known as well as the finest poet who has written inthe English language. Many reasons can be given for Shakespearesenormous appeal. His fame basically is from his great understanding of human nature. He was able to find universal human qualities and put them in a dramatic situation creating characters that are timeless. Yet he had the ability to create characters that are highly individual human beings. Their struggles in life are universal. Sometimes they are successful and sometimes their lives are full of pain, suffering, and failure. .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc , .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc .postImageUrl , .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc , .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc:hover , .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc:visited , .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc:active { border:0!important; } .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc:active , .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u2d64058934f04222034364a6941b79dc:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Nucleosynthesis EssayIn addition to his understanding and realistic view of humannature, Shakespeare had a vast knowledge of a variety of subjects. These subjects include music, law, Bible, stage, art, politics, history, hunting, and sports. Shakespeare had a tremendous influence on culture and literature throughout the world. He contributed greatly to the development of the English language. Many words and phrases from Shakespeares plays and poems have become part of our speech. Shakespeares plays and poems have become a required part ofeducation in the United States. Therefore, his ideas on subjects such as romantic love, heroism, comedy, and tragedy have helped shape th eattitudes of millions of people. His portrayal of historical figures and events have influenced our thinking more than what has been written in history books. The world has admired and respected many great writers, but only Shakespeare has generated such enormous continuing interest. My source states explanations rather than opinions on why Shakespeares contributions to literature are so vast. My source devoted thirty pages to William Shakespeare. Shakespeares plays are usually divided into three majorcategories. These are comedy, tragedy, and history. Three plays which are in the category of comedy are The Comedy of Errors, TheTaming of the Shrew, and The Two Gentlemen of Verone. Threeplays which are in the category of tragedy are Romeo and Juliet,Titus Andronicus, and Julius Caesar. In the category of history,three plays are Henry V, Richard II, and Richard III.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Assessing What Students Learn

Assessing What Students Learn Free Online Research Papers ASSESING WHAT STUDENTS LEARN AND HOW IT CAN BE MEASURED IN AN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNE COURSE CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND Assessing student learning outcomes in the advertising campaigns course: What do students learn and how can we measure it? The call for assessment is not new, nor is it a passing academic fad (Boyer, 1990; Maki, 2004, Rowntree, 1987). Accrediting bodies demand to know what our students are learning, while institutions of higher learning face growing political pressure to account for student learning. Evidence of this pressure comes in the form of the Spellings Report, an attempt to provide a comprehensive national strategy for postsecondary education in the United States (Chronicle Review, 2006). What do we think students in advertising programs should learn in our classes? How should we measure what they learn? How can we translate what we discover to improve student-learning opportunities? These are questions that accrediting bodies for journalism and mass communications, Accrediting Council for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (ACEJMC) and business, Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) ask programs to answer in the accreditation process. Those questions are also asked at institutional levels by regional accrediting bodies and by national associations such as American Association for Higher Education and American Association for Colleges and Universities. In 2004 ACEJMC began requiring programs that ask to be accredited to provide not only a plan for assessment, but evidence demonstrating that results are used to improve curriculum and learning (ACEJMC Web site). Likewise, AACSB requires that â€Å"the school uses well documented systematic processes to develop, monitor, evaluate and revise the substance and delivery of the curricula of degree programs and to assess the impact of the curricula on learning† (AACSB International Eligibility Procedures and Accreditation Standards for Business Accreditation, 2006, p. 15). Maki (2002) and Hersh (2005) make strong arguments that the commitment to assessment should come from within the institution, not from politicians, businessmen or consultants outside the academy. They contend that by taking ownership for accountability through assessment, faculty may be able to avoid the one-size-fits-all No Child Left Behind-style testing regime. More importantly, they add, academicians need to work toward good assessment practices not because they are being forced to do so by institutions and accrediting bodies as an act of accountability, but because it reflects a commitment to learning about learning (personal correspondence Maki, 2006). Assessing student-learning shifts the focus from what instructors teach to what students learn. While this concept has been the topic of conversation in the academy for a while, exactly how to do this and how to measure what students learn haven’t been fully explored with respect to advertising. Jeremy Cohen, former editor of Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, issued a challenge to the academy: â€Å"If assessment is to play a meaningful role . . . it is time to create depth and breadth of understanding of assessment theory and implementation through increased availability of professional quality development† (Cohen, 2004, p. 6). Assessment is particularly challenging for advertising programs because they encompass different disciplines – communication studies, journalism and business – that have different sets of assessment/accreditation criteria. An appropriate place to start with assessment in journalism and mass communications is the capstone course, such as the advertising campaigns class (Rosenberry Vicker, 2006). However, literature regarding assessment of student learning in said courses is sparse. In fact, most studies that have dealt with issues in the advertising campaigns course focused on what skills the industry values (Ganahl, 2003; Benigni Cameron, 1999), students’ attitudes toward grades (Umphrey Fullerton, 2004), and the importance of teamwork (Ahles Bosworth, 2004). However, no studies that we were aware of measure direct and indirect indicators of learning as well as other outcomes of the campaigns course that may benefit students as they develop into advertising professionals. This study will investigate learning outcomes identified by professors and look at student comments about those course objectives. The findings of this study can help advertising educators develop assessment tools for stude nt learning related to competence in understanding and applying the skills and tools of the profession that are beyond the grades students receive. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this paper is to investigate how educators might define measurable outcomes for advertising campaigns courses to help faculty develop a sustainable plan to evaluate student learning. This paper argues that the appropriate place to start assessing learning for advertising students is the capstone advertising course. It offers a model for teaching and learning that employs several components of an assessment framework offered by Shulman (2007). CHAPTER TWO Literature Review Grading and Assessment Some faculty might argue that they are already â€Å"doing† assessment because they are grading student work. To some extent this is true. However, faculty needs to be careful to make some important distinctions (Cohen, 2004). Grading student work such as papers and exams produces summative evaluations, which means that the work that is generated is measured against specific outcomes designed for the course rather than evaluating information about the learning process. Secondly, according to Cohen, students, not instructors, are accountable for their learning. The power of assessment lies in the feedback that instructors receive to improve learning opportunities. Rather than a summative emphasis, he contends, the focus should be on formative work because grades are not considered to be a valid indicator of the process of learning that occurs in a course. How, then, can faculty systematically evaluate and improve student learning? Do faculty grade what students actually learn or only the assignments they submit? This question is especially perplexing, given the complex, collaborative enterprise that is part of the campaigns course, and will be explored in more depth later in this paper. Professors are often not entirely comfortable with grading (Barnes, 1985), but many use it as their main evaluation tool. Pollio and Beck (2000) found that â€Å"students wished professors were less grade-oriented, while professors wished students were more learning-oriented† (p. 45) In fact, students often â€Å"confuse grades with learning and do not view grades as a snapshot† (Giese, 2005, p. 255). Grades can be important in the advertising/public relations job search after graduation, although employers often look at other factors when making hiring decisions, including experience, level of confidence, and the quality of the applicant ’s portfolio. While professors appear to believe that grades in advertising and public relations courses generally reflect the quality of a student’s course work, they also think that grades are not necessarily an adequate predictor of a student’s potential as employee (Ganahl, 2003). Still, grades can be an important motivating factor, especially for younger, less experienced students (Umphrey Fullerton, 2004). In their study of advertising majors’ attitudes toward grades, Umphrey and Fullerton theorize that older and more experienced students may be less motivated by grades than younger students because they â€Å"notice less of a relationship between the time they spend studying and resultant grades† (p. 45). At the same time, they found that students who held creative positions on campaigns teams were not motivated by grades. Given that the course has a strong creative focus and almost all students enroll in it during their senior year, what other factors might motivate students to succeed in the course, if not the grade? A review of existing literature uncovers some factors that have been considered in the past. While grades are an important assessment tool for summative evaluations such as papers and exams, Cohen states that they are not considered to be a valid indicator of the process of learning that occurs in a course (Cohen, 2004). Shulman (2007) suggests that instead of measuring the learning that occurs in our classrooms by computing a grade based on how well students meet specific course objectives, learning should be measured via multiple measures such as course-embedded assessment. Why Begin Assessment with the Capstone Course? The Association of American Colleges and Universities (AACU) National Leadership Council (2007) provides support that the culminating experience â€Å"can be structured to show how well students can integrate their knowledge and apply it to complex problems, and students’ level of performance on them can be aggregated and made public.† Rosenberry and Vicker (2006) suggest that it is appropriate to begin assessment with the capstone course in mass communications programs because the culminating experience requires that students integrate and apply knowledge from their majors. The products they generate offer opportunities to reflect on the adequacy of students’ preparation in the program. The culminating experience gives students a chance to synthesize what they have learned during their academic careers and bring coherence and closure to their experience in the major. They suggest further that the capstone experience not only provides a sense of closure, but also one of exploration. Capstone courses push students to extend beyond their present knowledge. Rosenberry and Vicker offer three major themes that emerged from their research on capstone courses: (1) capstones reflect an integration and synthesis of knowledge, (2) they require students to apply knowledge to real-world situations, and (3) they help stu dents make a transition from the classroom to their careers. Other topics they identified include: â€Å"extension of knowledge, opportunities for in-depth study, reinforcement or extension of basic communication competencies, and development of higher-order or critical thinking skills† (Rosenberry Vicker, 2006, p. 270). Interestingly, they identify outcomes that are traditionally thought of as intellectual skills and abilities. Interpersonal skills do not emerge on their list. What should be taught in a campaigns course? A review of literature suggests students learn practical, professional and interpersonal skills (Benigni Cameron, 1999; Ahles Bosworth, 2004). The capstone course in most advertising and public relations programs has a â€Å"real-world† focus, meaning that students work on a campaign that will solve a real life client’s communication problem strategically and creatively. Benigni and Cameron argued the importance of real-world application: â€Å"perhaps the most important function of capstone courses in journalism and mass communications is to prepare students for the real world† (1999, p. 50). They suggest that these â€Å"real world† skills should include communication and planning skills, as well as an ability to base strategic decisions on sound research and theory. The goal of the capstone course is to synthesize skills learned from prerequisite courses in a collaborative learning environment, in which stu dents work in a team environment to create a campaign, they state. In their study, Benigni and Cameron investigated the role that interpersonal dynamics play in a student campaign both internally (within team structure) and externally (with client). They found that two-thirds of campaigns classes used a team approach as class format, with 94% of all presenters being graded on individual as well as team performance. Seventy-three percent of campaigns courses used peer evaluations, while 60% indicated that peer evaluations of other students were reflected in the final grade for those students. They conclude teamwork, therefore, is an important component of the campaigns course. Benigni and Cameron furthermore found that some programs teach about teamwork, team building, and problem solving, and consensus building, but teamwork is not covered in much detail in undergraduate advertising and public relations programs (Ahles Bosworth, 2004). Ahles and Bosworth suggest that effective teams generally earn higher grades and produce a better quality campaign for the client. They found that after students complete the campaigns course, they often have a â€Å"shared vision† of effective teams, characterized by strong work habits and human relations skills, but not necessarily professional skills. Human relations skills included reliability, dedication to the project, and teamwork attitude. Ahles and Bosworth conclude that students may rank human relations skills so high because they think those skills will help them achieve a better grade. Thus, the desire to have these skills is ultimately selfish. In the same study students ranked professional skills, such as advertising and public relations tactical skills, computer skills, and problem-solving skills, lowest. Principles of Assessment Understanding why assessment is needed and how assessment occurs in a cyclical process prepares us to explore what it is that faculty should assess. Lee S. Shulman, president of The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, argues that assessment should be viewed essentially as a form of narrative (Shulman, 2007). He states that the story told by assessment is a function of the measurements taken, and those dimensions determine the possible directions the narrative might take. In other words, faculty needs to make clear their rationale for telling a particular narrative rather than alternative stories. What is it that advertising educators want to tell in their assessment story? What are the key indicators that those outcomes are being met that should be measured? Shulman (2007) offers â€Å"Seven Pillars of Assessment for Accountability† that can be used as a framework for developing an assessment plan. Four of them guided our work. 1. Become explicit about the story you need to tell and the rationale for choosing it. The story is driven by accrediting bodies to some extent. ACEJMC stipulates competencies that all graduates in accredited programs should know (see Appendix A for list). Another part of the story could be shaped by national standards for the discipline. The National Academic Committee of the American Advertising Federation (AAF), which is comprised of advertising practitioners and faculty, identified a coherent set of goals for advertising education (personal correspondence, Fullerton, 2007, see Appendix B for list). These competency lists give faculty some tools to use to set the outcomes they want their students to achieve – to create the story they want to tell about their programs. Another option for setting outcomes involves researching academic journals to see what other scholars have identified as important curricular areas for advertising. One direction the narrative could take could reveal how the goals of advertising education might link with goals of the institution’s general or liberal education, as some educators call for examining how learning and research are integrated across disciplinary boundaries (e.g., Gilbert, Schilt Ekland-Olson, 2005; AACU National Leadership Council, 2007). Ganahl, for example, surveyed alumni and faculty about the advertising/PR curriculum, finding those faculties were more supportive than professionals of a strong liberal arts education (2003). It is quite obvious at this point that to try to assess every possible aspect of the course at once is overwhelming, if not impossible. Faculty need not tell an epic story with their assessment. Rather they might conceptualize it as incremental steps over a period of time. This way assessment becomes an on-going activity and evolving story, rather than a snapshot taken just to have something to show an accrediting team. 2. Do not think that there is a â€Å"bottom line.† Once an instrument has been selected to assess a learning outcome (or competency), it is important to recognize what it measures and what it does not. Assessment results should be examined in the context of the particular narrative that is being told. This means that assessment that is focused to find the answer to a specific question cannot be generalized to conclude that assessment is complete or successful with one instrument. Rather, assessment is an on-going process of discovery. 3. Design multiple measures. An array of instruments will help provide a variety of assessment evidence from which to make informed pedagogical decisions. ACEJMC guidelines stipulate that these should include direct and indirect methods. Direct methods require students to demonstrate their learning or produce work that lets others judge whether or not outcomes have been achieved. Examples of direct assessment include a paper or test or evaluation of the campaign by a professional expert. Indirect measures involve asking students their perceptions about what they learned. Asking students, alumni and employers about their satisfaction with a program and measuring their job placement rate are examples of indirect assessment. Direct and indirect measures can be complementary and each tells a different part of the assessment story (Maki, 2004; Walvoord Anderson, 1998). 4. Embed assessment into ongoing instruction. The key here, according to Shulman, is to assess early and often. He suggests that assessment that is employed late in a course or program yields helpful pedagogical information when it’s too late to be of much use to students in that course. He says that assessment should be â€Å"a regular physical exam rather than a public autopsy† (p.6). This calls for what Shulman refers to as bilateral transparency. Progress toward learning outcomes should be accessible to both faculty and students. Shulman’s Seven Pillars of Assessment for Accountability invite a challenge for advertising educators. These pillars can be used to guide assessment that is multiple method, embedded, intentional, and iterative. To summarize, there is a need for strategic, intentional learning that improves as a result of evaluation of curriculum. Based on the assessment literature and specifically Shulman’s recommendations, we developed an assessment model called IDEA (Identification, Development, Evaluation and Application). This model illustrates the Teaching and Learning Cycle that is essential to the development of the overall plan for assessment, while providing a manageable â€Å"roadmap† for faculty to measure and improve student learning. The model suggests that faculty begin the assessment process by identifying and aligning a set of interconnected goals, including institutional, college, departmental, major, and course goals. Then, a qualitative and/or quantitative ins trument should be developed to measure specific learning outcomes that will assess the extent to which these goals were achieved. Next, evidence of student-learning should be collected, analyzed, and evaluated based on the specific goals that were identified at the beginning. The most important step is to apply the findings to improve student-learning. Finally, in order to complete the cycle, it is important to identify and align the various goals again and continue the assessment process. IDEA Model of Teaching and Learning: Taking Shulman’s advice to create bilateral transparency, this study focuses the assessment lens on a perspective that is often neglected: the students’. What is it that they report having learned? How does that match what faculty think they are grading and the course objectives they set? This exploratory study will show how assessment of the campaigns course has been attempted by one advertising program by implementing the IDEA model. In this case, the research questions for this study helped us to assess student learning at the course level. We wanted to investigate whether we teach what we are grading and grade what students are learning: RQ1: In what ways do student comments relate to what they learned in the capstone course match the instructor’s learning objectives for the course? RQ2: How do students rate the extent to which they achieved learning outcomes that include professional guidelines (AAF Principles), accrediting competencies (ACEJMC) and personal expectations? RQ3: What types of learning outcomes do students identify as most important? CHAPTER THREE Methodology Based on our experience working with faculty in our college to help them understand what assessment is and how it can help improve their teaching, two questions arise in almost every discussion: How is assessment different from grading? And, what is the difference between a teaching-objectives approach and a student-centered learning approach? As a result, an assessment method was developed that might offer an example of how faculty members could move from a teaching-objectives approach to a student learning focus, and in the process learn what assessment offers beyond meeting the course objectives. The capstone course, Advertising and Public Relations Campaigns, was the target course for this study as recommended by Rosenberry and Vicker (2006). It is an example of a course where cumulative learning and various other types of learning might be assessed. The purpose of this exploratory sequential mixed methods design was to explore student reflections on learning in the campaigns course with the intent of developing and testing a survey instrument that measures a variety of learning outcomes. The first phase of the study was a qualitative exploration of how students who have completed the advertising campaigns course at a large Midwestern university reflect on what they have learned in the course and how the course objectives match what they say they learned. These initial course objectives had been developed by the course instructors based on the ACEJMC assessment levels of learning (awareness, understanding, and application). After completing the campaigns course, students were asked to reflect on their development throughout the semester, using the course objectives as a guide. A total of 40 written student reflections from three sections were collected and categorized as pertaining to learning outcomes identified in the course ob jectives listed in the syllabus or additional learning outcomes that emerged from student responses. Students mentioned some of the course objectives and also listed things not on the list of objectives in the syllabus. The reason for collecting qualitative data initially is that an instrument needed to be developed that included more than the course objectives developed by the instructors. In the second, quantitative phase of the study, students’ statements and/or quotes from the qualitative data were used to develop an instrument to measure a more accurate list of learning outcomes among students in the campaigns course. In addition, profession related learning goals offered by The American Advertising Federation (AAF) and professional values and competencies listed by the Accrediting Council for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (ACEJMC) were added to complete the list. In short, the revised instrument included learning expectations from an accrediting body, a professional group, as well as students themselves. For the quantitative phase of the study a new group of students from three different sections of the next semester’s campaigns course was asked to complete the revised list of learning outcomes by evaluating whether their team achieved the original course objectives and to what extent they, as individuals, achieved the revised list of learning objectives. Students were then asked to list the top three things they learned from the campaigns course. This ranking was added to provide a measure of the importance of the learning objectives. The revised assessment forms were completed by 51 students from three different sections and three different instructors of the campaigns course at the same institution. CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS A qualitative inventory of the responses to the initial form indicated that student comments were made about their learning on all three levels - awareness, understanding and application - and in about equal proportions. However, there were some learning objectives in each of the categories that were not mentioned in the open-ended comments. In addition, there were comments about what was learned that had not been identified by instructors. These additional comments were related to group learning as well as individual learning that had taken place. This finding was deemed by the researchers to be an example of how the professor’s view of what should be learned in a course may not match the students’ view of what they learned in the course. The traditional approach in higher education has been that the professor outlines the learning objectives, teaches to those expectations, and indicates in the grading how well the student has met those objectives. This first step in our investigation offered a reminder that what we teach may not be what students learn, but also made us cognizant that what students learn may be beyond the teaching objectives we set. The student comments related to individual and group learning were incorporated in the next version of the course evaluation form. The consistency of the student responses on the team and individual sections of the revised evaluation form offer evidence of content validity and reliability related to student-oriented learning outcomes. Almost every student indicated â€Å"yes† related to each of the team achievements on the list. Only one person answered â€Å"no† on four of the learning objective statements. There was greater diversity in the individual versus the team evaluations, but most of the students gave themselves a 4 or 5 on the learning outcome statements. On only four of the individual learning objectives did fewer than half of the students give themselves a high â€Å"5†. The following four statements had the lowest means and the highest standard deviations of this group of questions: â€Å"ability to speak in public† (M = 3.53, SD = 1.689), â€Å"developed leadership skills† (M = 4.18, SD = 1.090), â€Å"played mediator between group members† (M = 3.84, SD = 1.405), and â€Å"learned how to write clearly and concisely† (M = 3.96, SD = 1.371). It is possible that those who did not express high agreement with these statements may not have been presenters for the campaign presentation to the client, did not take a leadership role on the team, or did not think that this course was the place they learned to write clearly and concisely. It is also possible that students did not realize that they reinforced their writing skills in the course, even though those skills were not specifically taught in campaigns. We will need to investigate these learning outcome differences to determine if the statement wording needs revision or if the course does not provide everyone with the opportunity to advance in these areas. Qualitative analysis of student comments about the three top things learned in the campaigns course produced three skills categories identified by the students: professional, personal development and interpersonal. Those three categories were developed from 157 items identified by the 51 students in the three sections of the course. Of those, 43% (67) were professional skills related, 34% (53) were about interpersonal relationships and 23% (37) were personal development items. The differences between the three groups of students in number of items in each category were minimal (Professional 23, 23, 21; Interpersonal 20, 19, 14; Personal development 15, 14, 8). Personal development and interpersonal skills comments were categorized based on whether the comment was given in a group or team context or was offered as a statement about self-development. Student comments about professional skills included such things as: presentation skills, evaluation and application of research, strategy development, understanding of entire process, technology needed to produce what was needed, importance of attention to details, how to build a cohesive campaign, near perfection needed for client, and understanding of what it takes to develop a plans book. Interpersonal skills included such items as: team work, client communication, need to share ideas, put differences aside for the welfare of the group, learn to rely on others and let them rely on you, need to compromise in order to succeed, and group communication is important. Statements about personal development items included such things as: learn to accept criticism, keep an open mind, master multi-tasking, think outside the box, learn to take responsibility, don’t take it personally, learn to compromise, learn to handle frustration, time management, patience is key, my ability may be more than I thought, and this experience confirmed that I do love the ad business. The richness of the student comments provided evidence that they can delineate different types of learning emanating from the campaigns experience. One item, time management, was difficult to categorize because it wasn’t always part of a statement related to self, or the group. It was included in the personal development category for this study because it was often used in a personal trait context. However, this is an item that needs to be investigated in more depth. It may be that time management skills could be considered as important for all three categories. What We Learned From Conducting This Exploratory Study Research question 1 asked, â€Å"In what ways do student comments related to what they learned in the capstone course match the instructor’s learning objectives for the course?† We discovered that student comments indicate the instructor’s learning objectives do match their views of what they learned in many cases, but students also report that there are additional types of learning that go beyond what is traditionally measured with grades that are tied to requirements or expectations listed in the syllabus. Research question 2 asked, â€Å"How do students rate the extent to which they achieved learning outcomes that include professional guidelines, accrediting competencies, and personal expectations?† Our findings indicate that students say they generally have met the professional and accrediting expectations in the capstone course as well as the personal expectations. However, we also were able to identify four skill areas where some students indicated the course did not help them meet the learning expectations. This provides information that could help develop changes in the course materials or assignments that might improve learning in those areas. Research question 3 asked, â€Å"What types of learning outcomes do student identify as most important?† Students in the campaigns course were able to help identify three types of learning that came from their class experience. The first type related to professional skills, which are often part of the grading rubric for courses offered in a professional program. Discovery of the other two types of learning – personal development and interpersonal skills – expands our knowledge of what students learn in a course beyond what was listed as learning objectives in the syllabus. It is our hope that the findings of this study might help faculty members understand the importance of developing assessment techniques that measure learning experiences outside and beyond the class assignments that are part of the grading rubric. Perhaps faculty will see that student input and feedback related to learning objectives can help make course instruction more student-centered. Our plan is to refine this method in the campaigns course and then apply it to other courses in the advertising program, as well as the capstone courses for the other majors offered in our college. CHAPTER FIVE Discussion The purpose of this paper was to investigate how educators might define measurable outcomes for a capstone course and to help faculty and administrators develop tools to build a sustainable plan to evaluate student learning. Based on current conventional practices in assessment, accrediting bodies demand that faculty complete the transition from teacher-centered education to learning-outcome accountability. The accrediting process requires that institutions not only create plans and assess student learning, but that they use the information from their activities to demonstrate how learning opportunities are improved as a result. One place to start assessing learning in the advertising major is the culminating experience students get in the capstone campaigns course. This paper offers the IDEA model for assessment of teaching and learning, which starts by identifying and aligning institutional, departmental and course goals. The goal in this example was to assess if we teach what we are grading and if we grade what we are teach what we are grading and if we grade what we are teaching. We then developed an instrument to measure evidence of student learning pertaining to this goal, collected and analyzed qualitative and quantitative data, and demonstrated how we used it to improve student learning. The last step of the IDEA model is to go back and start the cycle again by identifying and aligning goals. This study followed Shulman’s (2007) recommendation that assessment should be bilaterally transparent. Missing from existing literature is a notion that students had input or feedback into creating the learning objectives. This investigation focused the assessment efforts narrowly, exploring how students reflect on whether the course objectives matched their learning, and asking how they rate learning outcomes that include professional and personal expectations. Findings indicated what was expected to a certain extent. Students reported that they believed they learned what the faculty had established for course objectives. Most interesting however, was the notion that the students themselves believed they learned more than the instructors expected. Three themes emerged in the qualitative portion of the study, which categorized students’ responses: professional skills, interpersonal skills and personal development. To the literature about campaigns courses, this study adds the notion that the personal component is an important learning outcome of the campaigns course as identified by students. Overall, this study demonstrates that it is not necessary to assess every element in a program to be informed about certain parts of it. Incremental assessment conducted over time with multiple measures helps give a fuller picture of the learning experience. While this study is an example of an indirect measure of assessment, faculty needs to add to the assessment story with other evaluations of the course, such as critiques by professional panels and reviews by the clients, which directly measure student learning. Completing the assessment cycle, it is important to implement changes based on evidence generated in the process. Faculty has choices to accomplish improvements. To implement what was learned in this particular case, faculty could revise the learning outcomes and reflect that in the grading. One way to apply the findings of this study to the campaigns course would be to incorporate a â€Å"personal development† component into the grading rubric and share it with the students at the beginning of the semester. Grading rubrics are an effective way to articulate expectations to students (Lattuca, 2005). It involves establishing and defining standards that must be met. In this study, the first step is to define â€Å"personal development,† which can be accomplished in a variety of ways. For example, the instructor could provide one by referring to the literature. However, a much more student-centered approach would be to involve students and to ask them to define and reflect on what â€Å"personal development† means in the campaigns course. This could be achieved by implementing an assessment plan similar to the one we presented here. The definition could then become part of the grading rubric and measured by indicating to what extent â€Å"personal development† was achieved by each student. It would be the instructor’s discretion to determine the percentage of the grade that â€Å"personal development† should account for. The grading rubric should be re-evaluated each semester as part of the continuous assessment process. On the other hand, if the instructor does not believe that â€Å"personal development† should be graded, she could simply ask students to reflect on this particular learning outcome and again measure it based on an operational definition as another way to assess what students learn in the course. This study demonstrates that grading is not the same as assessment. We learned that students report learning personal development skills that are not taken into account when grades are given. We now know that an important part of the course includes that dimension. We, as faculty, can choose to integrate it in the grade with rubrics that reflect this component or keep it as a separate ungraded component of the course. The instructors teaching the campaigns course at our institution have incorporated the â€Å"personal development† component in different ways. One has included it in the grading rubric, while another chose to discuss it with students at various points throughout the semester. In both cases, students will be asked at the end of this semester to reflect on this important component, which will again become part of the assessment cycle. Limitations The primary limitation of this study is the relatively small sample size. The findings are meant to be an illustration of how one institution has assessed a specific component of the advertising campaigns course. Future Directions As indicated in the IDEA model of teaching and learning, the most important piece of assessment is to view it as an ongoing process. We need to assess student learning systematically over time so that we can continuously improve it. The next step for us is to assess what advertising alumni say they have learned in the capstone course. This will add another chapter to our assessment story because students who have just completed the course but haven’t had any professional experience may not know what they have learned until they are somewhat established in the professional world. References AACU National Leadership Council for Liberal Education America’s Promise. (2007). College Learning for the New Global Century. Washington, DC: Association of American College and Universities. Accrediting Council for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (ACEJMC).Retrieved March 17, 2007 from (assessment standard) (competency list) Ahles, C. B. Bosworth, C. C. (2004). The perception and reality of students and workplace teams. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 59 (1), 42-59. Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. (AACSB). Eligibility procedures and accreditation standards for business accreditation. Retrieved March 21, 2007 from ( Barnes, S. (1985). A study of classroom pupil evaluation: The missing link in teacher education, Journal of Teacher Education, 36, 46-49. Benigni, V. L., Cameron, G. T. (1999). Teaching PR campaigns: The current state of the art. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, (59) 3, 50-60. Boyer, E.L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Chronicle Review (2006, Sept. 1) The Spellings Report, Warts and All. Chronicle of Higher Education, 53 (2). Cohen, J. (2004). Assessment . . . yours, mine, ours. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 59 (1), 3-6. Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Ganahl, D. (2003). Evaluating a professional advertising/PR curriculum: Aligning the liberal arts curriculum with professional expectations. Journal of Advertising Education, 7(2), 24-32. Gilbert, L. A., Schilt, P.E., Ekland-Olson, S. (2005). Engaging students: Integrated learning and research across disciplinary boundaries. Liberal Education (Summer/Fall 2005), 44-49. Giese, M. (2005). An educator’s journal: Evaluating and evaluated. Journalism Mass Communication Educator, 60 (3), 252-256. Hersh, R. H. (2005). What does college teach? It’s time to put an end to â€Å"faith-based† acceptance of higher education’s quality. The Atlantic Monthly, November 2005 , 140-143. Lattuca, L. R. (2005). Making learning visible: Student and peer evaluation. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 60 (3), 247-251. Maki, P. L. (2002). Moving from paperwork to pedagogy: Channeling intellectual curiosity into a commitment to assessment. AAHE Bulletin, May 2002. Retrieved Feb. 14, 2007 from Reprint.asp. Maki, P. L. (2004). Assessing for learning: Building a sustainable commitment across the institution. Sterling, VA: American Association for Higher Education. Pollio, H. R., Humphries, W. L., Milton, O. (1989). Components of contemporarycollege grade meanings. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 14, 77-91. Rosenberry, J. Vicker, L.A. (2006). Capstone courses in mass communication programs. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 61 (3), 267-283. Rowntree, D. (1987). Assessing students: How shall we know them? (2nd ed.) London: Kogan Page. Shulman, L. S. (2007). Counting and recounting: Assessment and the quest for accountability. Change, 39 (1), ( Umphrey, D., Fullerton, J. (2004). Attitudes toward grades among advertising majors. Journal of Advertising Education (8)1, 39-47. Walvoord, B. E., Anderson, V. J. (1998). Effective Grading: A Tool for Learning and Assessment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Appendix A ACEJMC PRINCIPLES OF ACCREDITATION: Professional values and competencies (adopted Sept. 16, 2000) Individual professions in journalism and mass communication may require certain specialized values and competencies. Irrespective of their particular specialization, all graduates should be aware of certain core values and competencies and be able to: Understand and apply First Amendment principles and the law appropriate to professional practice; Demonstrate an understanding of the history and role of professionals and institutions in shaping communications; Demonstrate an understanding of the diversity of groups in a global society in relationship to communications; Understand concepts and apply theories in the use and presentation of images and information; Work ethically in pursuit of truth, accuracy, fairness and diversity; Think critically, creatively and independently; Conduct research and evaluate information by methods appropriate to the communications professions in which they work; Write correctly and clearly in forms and styles appropriate for the communications professions, audiences and purposes they serve; Critically evaluate their own work and that of others for accuracy and fairness, clarity, appropriate style and grammatical correctness; Apply basic numerical and statistical concepts; Apply tools and technologies appropriate for the communications professions in which they work Appendix B A Statement of Principles for Advertising Education Programs, National Academic Committee American Advertising Federation (July 2006) 1. Advertising students should know the following: A. The institutions of advertising, their history, and how they relate to each other. B. How advertising is coordinated with marketing and other aspects of a company or organization’s activities. C. Management of the advertising function and personnel in agencies and client organizations. D. A wide range of alternatives for delivering advertising messages and how to use those delivery vehicles. E. The conceptual basis for crafting advertising messages. F. How advertising is regulated. G. Ethical principles for advertising practices. H. Research methodologies appropriate to guiding advertising strategy and evaluating its results. I. An appreciation for the diversity of markets and audiences for whom advertisers create campaigns and messages. J. Critical thinking, written, oral and visual communication, and presentation skills. K. The ability to work with others to solve problems creatively. 2. Instruction in advertising courses should include both theory and practical application, such as the National Student Advertising Competition (Relevant to ACEJMC Standard 2). 3. Advertising faculty members should have professional experience relevant to the courses they teach (Relevant to ACEJMC Standard 4). 4. Advertising students should be strongly encouraged to gain work experience before graduation through campus media and internships (Relevant to ACEJMC Standard 2) 5. Advertising students should be proficient in using equipment and technology they will use in their careers (Relevant to ACEJMC Standard 2). 6. Advertising programs should be assessed using multiple measures, which could include: Participation in regional and national competitions, such as the National Student Competition, ADDYs, and competitive internship programs Capstone papers Journals and reflection pieces Focus groups Benchmark measurements (pre-tests/ post-tests of courses and senior year Portfolios of student work Research Papers on Assessing What Students LearnStandardized TestingThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseThree Concepts of PsychodynamicInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaThe Project Managment Office SystemIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenHip-Hop is Art

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

What does Jacks mask represent, and what does it show the reader about Essay

What does Jacks mask represent, and what does it show the reader about how Jack is changing - Essay Example His mark made him look like a barbarous creature as compared to his previous appearance of a civilized boy. With his mask, he considered himself a stranger and he wanted to hide behind his mask and do all the barbarous tasks. Jack masked keenly and others followed blindly. After masking his face, he started dancing and laughing with a â€Å"bloodthirsty snarling† that indicates towards the change that appeared in him. The mask hid his real personality of a civilized boy and turned him into a savage, who was ready to hunt, kill and hurt without any mercy. When he was masked, he had to take care of nothing because nobody was going to recognize him. He was hidden behind his mask. His mask compelled him to do the wrong and injurious. He was no more in the bounds of civilization. He was not Jack but someone else and could do anything he liked in his new position without blaming Jack. After masking his face, Jack became more violent. A ship arrived but there was no fire to indicate that the island has some civilized residents. Jack was involved in narrating his bravery story before the boys and he was not at all interested in the ship that has arrived and left them. He covered his face with mask and was a newly barbarous creature and he was not interested to return back to civilization. Jack did all the barbarous actions such as he hunted a pig mercilessly with a masked face and he â€Å"smudged blood over his forehead†. â€Å"Painted faces and Long hair† that is the title of chapter 4 indicates that the boys entered barbarism by masking their identities. Painted faces depict barbarians and it is also a war symbol. The barbarians paint themselves to hide themselves from their enemies or during a fight. Jack by covering his face with paints has converted himself from a civilized person to a savage, a brute who does not care about anyone and acts according to his own instincts. His attitude towards Piggy

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Discuss the importance to businesses of having a good knowledge of Essay

Discuss the importance to businesses of having a good knowledge of elasticity's for planning and pricing policies, using examples and diagrams as appropriate - Essay Example th a price elasticity of 1.5, a 10 percent increase in the price of a bar of bath soap would cause a 15 per cent drop in the quantity demanded of the product based on the formula E = ΔQ / ΔP. The demand is relatively elastic (the demand curve is somewhat flat) if it is greater than 1, such as the one shown in the graph below, and relatively inelastic if less than 1, such as 0.9. Cross elasticity of demand is used when one products affects another because they are either complements or substitutes. An example would be coffee and sugar which are complements because an increase in demand in coffee raises the demand for sugar. So instead of the quantity demanded of coffee changing as its own price changes, we measure the quantity demanded of coffee to a change in the price of sugar. If we take another example, such as a cross elasticity of 2.0 for PC in relation to a printer. If the price of computer printers fell 3 per cent, demand for laptop will rise 6 per cent because the cross price elasticity is -2. These products are complements. In case of substitutes, a drop in the price of Japanese cameras will cause the quantity demanded of American cameras to drop. 1.3 Income elasticity of demand. When an individuals income increases, his demand for a computer laptop, for example, increases if the product is a normal good. If it is an inferior good such as canned sardines, an increase in income will reduce the quantity demanded of sardines because the individual might prefer to consume steak or chicken instead. If the demand is very elastic - that is, the elasticity is much higher than 1.0, lets say 3.0 - any increase in the price of a commodity or service would result in a loss of revenues for the marketer. This is because a 10 per cent increase in price would trigger a reduction in quantity demanded of 30 per cent. On the other hand, if the firm reduces his price, this can result in a three-fold increase in the quantity demanded, and therefore he makes more

Monday, January 27, 2020

Marketing Strategy of Big Bazaar India

Marketing Strategy of Big Bazaar India In this assignment, I have described its marketing strategies and promotional activities. The assignment is based on the effective marketing strategy which influences customer to purchase a product of Big Bazaar helps to understand the effect of marketing strategy which is responsible for attracting customer towards big bazaar. The research was carried out as per the steps of Marketing Research. The well supportive objectives were set for the study. To meet the objectives primary research was undertaken. The data collection approach adopted was experimental research. Big Bazaar is the fastest growing and most successful Retail chain in India. Big bazaar is the first retail chain to be started in India and is the largest until now. In the later part of the assignment I have applied 4Ps marketing strategy to show that how Big Bazaar has reached from introduction stage to growth stage and observed via some points that this company is right now in growth stage of Product Life Cycle model. I have also analyzed the SWOT showing how this company made its brand more effective. I have also described some suggestions to improve its brand image towards customers. Contents INTRODUCTION: BIG BAZAAR is a name renowned in Retail. It is now a brand image in private retail sector. Wal-Mart is the retail stores of USA and is known all over the world for its fashionable and affordable materials and is known as one of the best in its field, big bazaar can be said as the Wal-Mart of India running a chain of more than 100 retail stores in India. People around the country thinks that big bazaar is inspired from Wal-Mart and it is quite obvious to think as Wal-Mart is world leading chain of retail shopping but actually the idea of big bazaar came to the CEO Kishore Biyanifrom a 25 years old store Saravana which was owned by a family and worked on the philosophy of low margin high turnover. Following its slogan of isse sasta or achha kahin nahi(Meaning cannot find cheaper and better than this anywhere) it provides the consumer with the best of the materials at a rate less than rest of the market. Big bazaar is the subsidiary of Future Group, Pantaloons Retail India ltd. The brain behind big bazaar is the CEO of Future Group Mr. Kishore Biyani Future group is has various brands like Pantaloons, F123, Copper Chimney, Etam, Staples, One Mobile, Urbana, Brand Factory, LootMart, HomeTown and Central. Big bazaar covers all parts of India including the metro cities Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, and Mumbai. Big bazaar started with its first store in Kolkata, west Bengal in 2001 and now owns more than 100 stores all over India making itself the fastest growing retail chain in India and leaving all its competitors behind. WHY BIG BAZAAR? Indian retail sector is witnessing one of the most hectic Marketing activities of all times. The companies are fighting to win the hearts of customer. There is always a first mover advantage in an upcoming sector. This advantage goes to BIG BAZAAR in India. It has brought about many changes in the buying behavior of people as Big Bazaar provides all items in one roof at low rates. The consumers preferences are changing they are moving from shops stores to Modern Retail outlet. Its the main challenge to the Modern retail outlets to attract the customers towards them from that of competitors. To attract more customers companies have to carry out the promotional activities in unique way. BIG BAZAAR has maintained that uniqueness has succeeded in attracting customers. The promotional activity of the company, which famous as Less Price than others as it saysNobody Sells Cheaper and Better!is made its place in minds of customer. As the competition is becoming stiff in the market the activities conducted by the company are unique, that have brought fruitful result to the company. Among them sales Promotions is one of the leading activity or unique among all other activities has high influence on the customer walk-in. OBJECTIVES: To know the effective marketing strategy which influence customer to purchase a product of Big Bazaar. To know the marketing and promotional strategy of big bazaar. How Big Bazaar Establish and maintain its position in retailing through promotion. LITERATURE REVIEW: RELATED CASE STUDY: A lot of case studies have been done before on this topic and its different aspects as my focus is on leading towards success through the low cost strategy which is followed by big bazaar, one of them is described below: Building brand through challenge: In 2001, PRIL opened its first Big Bazaar, a 30,000 square feet store in Kolkata. The major USP of the Big Bazaar, store was low pricing. These stores offered the best price proposition to customers. As part of this, the stores focused less on branded items and more on unbranded products with the same quality as branded ones, at a much cheaper rate. Commenting on this, Biyani said, We are not in the business of selling ambience, but in the business of giving the best possible deals to our consumers. The first Food Bazaar was set up in Lower Parel in suburban Mumbai in 2001. Food Bazaars represent PRILs foray into yet another value retailing business, focusing on food and grocery products. These stores were designed based on PRILs understanding of the emotional and rational needs of Indian housewives The tremendous success of the Pantaloons, Big Bazaar and Food Bazaar retailing formats, easily made PRIL, the #1 retailer in India by the early 2004, in terms of turnover and retail area occupied by its outlets. In the fiscal year ended June 30, 2003, PRIL increased its retail area by 66% to 586,000 sq. ft and reported revenues of Rs 4.45 billion, a 56% increase over fiscal 2002. Its net profits rose by 63% to Rs. 114.1 million in fiscal 2002-03, over the previous year. Big Bazaar has positioned itself as a value for money proposition for Indian family retail store. They wanted to promote Big Bazaar as a retail store which gives its customers maximum advantage over other retail stores by catering to all their needs budget wise and income level wise. Sabse Saste 3 Din'(the cheapest 3 days) brain child ofMr. Sadashiv Nayak, President Big Bazaar and Rajan Malhotra, President Strategy and Convergence, Big Bazaar, believe that Consumers are always looking for best value for their money. Big Bazaars Sabse Saste 3 Din is a great opportunity for them to save money and gets best products at the best possible prices. These three days have come to truly signify freedom from high prices for consumers in the country. Maha Bachat ( save money) was introduced five years back ( in the year 2006 ) and it is still running very successfully. It is known as one of Indias mega shopping campaign. Continuing its efforts to provide the best shopping deals and savings to Indian consumers, Big Bazaar is always set to make Republic Day and Independence Days shopping, truly memorable, with rock bottom prices, best possible discounts and mega offers. Apart from the flagship Big Bazaar and Food Bazaar stores, other future group retail formats like Furniture Bazaar, Electronic Bazaar, Depot, and Home Bazaar stores are also a part of this mega campaign. From daily household needs of food and grocery to apparels, RETAIL INDUSTRY IN INDIA: India has one of the largest numbers of retail outlets in the world. Of the 12 million retail outlets present in the country, nearly 5 million sell food and related products. Thought the market has been dominated by unorganized players, the entry of domestic and international organized players is set to change the scenario. Organized retail segment has been growing at a blistering pace, exceeding all previous estimates. According to a study by Deloitte Haskins and Sells, organized retail has increased its share from 5 % of total retail sales in 2006 to 8 % in 2007. The fastest growing segments have been the wholesale cash and carry stores (150%) followed by supermarkets (100%) and hypermarkets (75-80%). Further, it estimates the organized segment to account for 25 per cent ofthe total sales by 2011. India retail industry is the largest industry in India, with an employment of around 8% and contributing to over 10% of the countrys GDP. Retail industry in India is expected to rise 25% yearly being driven by strong income growth, changing life styles, and favorable demographic patterns. It is expected that by 2016 modern retail industry in India will be worth US$ 175 -200 billion. India retail industry is one of the fastest growing industries with revenue expected in 2007 to amount US$320 billion and is increasing at a rate of 5% yearly. A further increase of 7-8% is expected in the industry of retail in India by growth in consumerism in urban areas, rising incomes, and a steep rise in rural consumption. It has further been predicted that the retailing industry in India will amount to US$21.5 billion by 2010 from the current size of US$ 7.5 billion. Shopping in India has witnessed a revolution with the change in the consumer buying behavior and the whole format of shopping also altering. Industry of retail in India which has become modern can be seen from the fact that there are multi- stored malls, huge shopping centers, and sprawling complexes which offer food, shopping, and entertainment all under the same roof. India retail industry is progressingwell and for this to continue retailers as well as the Indian government will have to make a combined effort. 4PS OF MARKETING: Marketing is the promotion of products, especially advertising branding. Marketing practice tends to be seen as a creative industry, which includes advertising, distribution and selling. Marketing mix is a deciding factor in formulating marketing techniques for the success of a particular brand, commodity or company. The components of marketing mix are: Product Price Place Promotion Source: PRODUCT: Big Bazaar offers the maximum variety for every category of product. The product is the same in every store in the city but the brand options are more in Big Bazaar and the quantity for each product is not limited to large packs only. The commodities sold by the retail chain includes its own products which get a ready distribution network. The own products of Big Bazaar include My World fashion magazine which is not available anywhere else. So costs are very low for such products. PRICE: Price is the critical point in a competitive industry. Big Bazaar works on a low cost model. It considers its discounted price as its USP. There is an average discount of 6-8% on all items in respect to their MRP. Prices of products are low because it is able to secure stock directly from the manufacturer. There are huge synergies in terms of bulk purchasing, transportation and central warehousing. These all factors are very helpful for the retailers to keep low prices. PLACE: Place means the location of the business. Big Bazaar has always worked on cheap locations. It targets semi-urban population with its placement. Its strategy is to find a low-cost location and it never goes for hot spots in the city. It relied on promotional activities to make up for unattractive locations. Another strategy used by Big Bazaar to overcome location disadvantage is use of internet. It has launched a merchandise retailing website which targets high-end customers ready to use credit cards. The promotion of this website is done through advertisement on Google. The website is put as sponsored link. PROMOTION: Big Bazaar has huge promotion budgets. The biggest idea behind all advertisements is to make people do bulk shopping. There are 2 types of promotional strategies of big bazaar. One is the advertisement which promotes the brand and creates awareness towards people. It is not targeted at promoting each store but only creates an image of Big Bazaar as low-cost shopping option. The store has advertised through TV, road shows and also started reality show-typed promotional campaign The Big Bazaar Challenge. Promotions like Sabse Sasta Din(Cheapest Day) are a very successful strategy to get good results. In this products across categories such as furniture, electronics, utensils, apparels and food products at the lowest possible prices, coupled with attractive promotional schemes. Some of the most attractive offers being a 20-litre branded microwave oven with grill for Rs 2,399, jeans and trousers for Rs 199 and HCL laptops for Rs 22,800. Buy 2 Get 1 Free types of promotions are very common. Original prices are cut down and new prices are shown, of which customer takes quick notice. There are loyalty schemes which reward regular clients. CURRENT POSITIONING STRATEGY OF BIG BAZAAR: Big Bazaar is holding a strong position in the market and is growing very fast. It captures the maximum Indian market and with a strong financial background and it has to go a long way through. The low price strategy it is successfully running its business all over India and is still growing bigger and bigger. The following graph shows the Product Life Cycle of Big Bazaar which is currently at the growth stage. Source: Looking at the product life cycle of big bazaar it can be seen that it is in the growth stage at this point of time and still have a lot scope to grow. It is said that: Cheap prices are a luxury for the rich but a necessity or a need for the poor. So Big bazaar has understood the need of a vast population of the upper middle class and middle class people of the country and in fact no matter how rich a person is wherever he/she can get good brands at a cheaper rates they will be attracted towards it whether an average or a rich person. RETENTION STRATEGY: Big Bazaar strive to foster a feeling of well-being in their employees through care and respect, Big Bazaar have several structured processes including employee mentoring and grievance management programmers which are intended to facilitate a friendly and cohesive organization culture. Off -site activities are encouraged to improve interpersonal relationship. Big Bazaar also acknowledge the efforts exerted by their employees by organization an annual celebration called Pantaloon Day where Big Bazaar recognize employees who have shown exceptional talent, sincerity and dedication. Big Bazaar have implemented an employee suggestion programme called Prerna wherein the employee can give their suggestions. Every quarter the best suggestion received per zone per format is awarded prize called Golden Cap. BIG BAZAARS NEW MARKETING STRATEGY: Big Bazaar has launched new marketing strategy which is based on Guerrilla Marketing. Guerrilla marketing warfare strategies are a type of marketing warfare strategy designed to wear-down the enemy by a long series of minor attacks, using principles of surprise and hit-and-run tactics. Attack, retreat, hide, then do it again and again, until the competitor moves on to other markets. Guerrilla force is divided into small groups that selectively attack the target at its weak points. In the world of cut throat competition, corporate use extension of the same strategy in marketing. Corporate like Pepsi, Coke etc have been using the same for quite some time now and the latest entrant is our very own Future Group- Big Bazaar, Future Bazaar, Pantaloons, e Zone are all part of this group and they are taking on the biggies like Shoppers Stop, Lifestyle, and Tatas Westside. In order to do the same, Future Group have come up with 3 catchy and cheeky ad campaigns which surely do catch our eyes a nd surely one cant resist appreciating the same. ADVERTISING: THE ESSENTIAL OF BRAND BUILDING PROCESS- Advertising is an essential component of brand building. The advertisement and brand building is done through various ways, the techniques used are: Tag-line:Big Bazaar tag-lines are the key components of advertising. These tag-lines are modified according to demographic profile of customers. These catch-phrases appeared on hoardings and newspapers in every city where Big Bazaar was launched. Print Ads:Big Bazaar newspaper advertisements are present just before launch of any new scheme. TV Ads:Kishore Biyani spends a lot of money in brand building exercise. Big Bazaar commercials are shown on various channels in India. Presently, Fashion at Big Bazaar commercial is aired. Road-side Advertisements:Big Bazaar bill-boards are displayed on prime locations in various cities as a brand building exercise. They display the catch-phrases now-a-days. Radio Ads:This technique is used in cities like Sangli (Tier 1 / Tier 2 cities).Now-a-days, it is replaced by advertisements on FM channels. This informs customers about all new happenings at Big Bazaar. For example: The departmental store chain Big Bazaar has launched a commercial sometime back to promote The Great Exchange Offer. The commercial portrays how customers can exchange any old and broken items (junk) and get new products at a discounted price from Big Bazaar. Customer can get the amazing prices for junk. The month of January and February is generally a low-key affair in terms of customer footfalls and revenue generation. Innovative, out of the box promotions is one of the effective ways to draw customer attention and shore up the revenue. Historically Exchange schemes have been used to induce better sales; it also has a strong appeal with the Indian mindset of getting value even for their junk, states an official release from Big Bazaar. SWOT ANALYSIS: Strengths: Maximum number of varieties: People prefer those places where they can get the maximum products they need and Big Bazaar provides vast range of products under one roof helping in attracting customer and their family to shop together and enjoy the experience. High brand equity: Big Bazaar has created high brand equity through its promotions and marketing it has created a different image for its products as the cheap and best. Largest chain of retail marketing in India: Big Bazaar is the first retail chain to be started in India and is the largest and successful until now. High capacity investment: Big Bazaar offers 1,70,000 products and owns more than 100 retail stores all over India and has the strong financial background as being the subsidiary of future groups which owns the pantaloons which is one of the biggest the industries in mens wear in India and have its work is spread all over India. Future group is one of the leading groups in India. Everyday new promotions and schemes of low prices and discounts: Big Bazaar always offers new schemes of low prices and gives discounts in products like Big Bazaar offers the sabse saste 3 din ( the cheapest 3 days) in which it offers the lowest of prices than other days. Facilities like online booking and delivery of goods: It is not just a chain of retail shopping but also provides online shopping facility to the consumers. Weaknesses: Overcrowded: During offers, promotions and even on weekends the place is overcrowded with people and sometime even there is the situation of closing the store due to it. Checkout can be extremely slow: There can be seen a long queue on the billing counters making the consumer wait for hours due to the slow service and the crowd. Perception of low price=low quality: Generally people think that if any product has low price then the quality of the product will be low as they think quality comes with price. Targets at the middle class and upper middle class only: It targets at the middle and upper middle class due to which it ignores the upper and elite class people as they are the cream of the society who are ready to pay any price for the quality and product they need. Opportunities: Big Bazaar can enter into production of various products due to its in depth understanding of customers tastes andpreferences. Nowadays people prefer going to one big store and buy everything instead of visiting different places for different items and waste time. So Big Bazaar can expand the business in smaller cities as there is a lot of opportunity. Lot of potential inthe rural market. Threats: High business risk involved: Big Bazaar investment is very large so it is obvious that there is high business risk involved. Lot of competitors: There are a lot of countries which are planning to enter the Indian market like Wal-Mart, Carrefour and Tesco which is a big threat to Big Bazaar. Less Parking Space: Customers are not satisfied with the parking space availability provided by Big Bazaar. Hence its a threat of Big Bazaar as it may loose its customers because of less parking space availability. In holidays it will be very difficult for customers to park their vehicle in Big Bazaar. Unorganized retailing: Unorganized retail stores are a threat to the business of big bazaar as now also people prefer to go to the local stores which are convenient enough for them. COMPARITIVE ANALYSIS: BIG BAZAAR V/S VISHAL MEGA MART Vishal Mega Mart ( FOR DETAILS REFER APPENDIX) Fields Big bazaar Vishal mega mart Price Big Bazaar prices are very low because its adopt the low price marketing strategy. Vishal Mega Mart prices are not low because they give whatever is market price. Service Big Bazaar services are not quite good as billing problem due to crowd and less parking space. Vishal Mega Mart does not face these kind of problems as its not overcrowded. Ambience Product variety Big Bazaar has lots of variety in every category of products. In Big Bazaar people can find almost everything. Vishal Mega Mart dont have so much varieties as it is smaller than Big Bazaar. Convenience Big Bazaar has always worked in cheap location so that it is very convenient for the people to go to the Big Bazaar rather than going outer of the city. Vishal Mega Mart also works in low cost loacation but it is not so much popular in comparison of Big Bazaar as showrooms of Vishal Mega Mart are less than Big Bazaar. Shopping experience In Big Bazaar people can buy the maximum variety of products of every category under one roof helping in attracting customer and their family to shop together and enjoy the shopping experience. Vishal Mega Mart also provides the products under one roof but there is not so much varieties so that customers dont attract so they can not enjoy their shoppings Product quality The product quality is good in Big Bazaar because people can find cheap and best things in Big Bazaar. The product quality is also good in Vishal Mega Mart but the prices are very high. RECOMMENDATIONS: Big bazaar should keep offers in regular intervals so that there should not be a long term gap, because offer is the most influencing factor which is responsible for customer purchase decision. Big bazaar should start emphasizing more on internet shopping along with the formal retail shopping because a large population of the country likes to shop online in order to save time. Along with the different discounts and offers it should pay attention towards the students and provide some offers for them also because half of the Indian population is of youths and students. It should work on its billing counters and customer service in order to solve the problem of long queues and waiting customers. CONCLUSION: Big Bazaar is undoubtedly the number one retailer in India. It has built a very emotional and cordial relationship with its customers. It is also very intending to built long-term relationship with all its stakeholders, which is very essential for a successful business venture. It is observed that the organization hierarchy is professional as all the departmental Managers directly report to the store manager who in turn reports to the Zonal Head. Big Bazaar, with 25 years of experience in the field of weaving fabrics, is the leading Apparels and fashion design fabric company. There exist a healthy and positive relationship between employees and managers. The employees accept their responsibilities wholeheartedly, accept that it is their responsibilities to carry out a part of the activities of the company and they will be held accountable for the quality of their work. It is found that more than 60% of employees are of the age group of 20-35. Fromthis it reveals thatcompany is having young and energetic workforce who are very creative, enthusiastic and also very determined to grow in their career and in turn helping the company to grow. Working environmentis good and also the various facilities provided helps in motivating the employees. The company is reaching out to all the sections of the society as it is creating a hypermarket where not only the rich people shop but also the middle and the lower class customers come to enjoy the whole shopping experience. Moreover the customer friendly ambiance and the organized retailing of products also make Big Bazaar one of the successful retail industries in India. REFRENCES: Abhay, 2008. Big Bazaar. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 23 March 2011]. Admin, 2009. Marketing Mix. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 18 March 2011]. Berry, T., 2008. How to Perform SWOT Analysis. PaloAltoSoftware,Inc. Bhasin, R., n.d. Big Bazaar Case Analysis. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 29 March 2011]. Bhatia, H., 2010. Big Bazaar. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 21 March 2011]. Cook, S., 2011. Big Bazaar India. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 20 March 2011]., 2010. Future Bazaar India Ltd. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 24 March 2011]. Group, F., 2008. Future Group. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 22 March 2011]. Gupta, N., 2010. Big Bazaar Maha Bachat. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 25 March 2011]. Kotler, P., n.d. In Marketing Management. 12th ed. Kumar, V., 2010. Promotional Strategy of Big Bazaar Maintaining the image in Retailing. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 19 March 2011]. Malhotra, R., 2008. Big Bazaar Indias Real Retail Story. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 26 March 2011]. Mital, D., 2010. Big Bazaar: a Review. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 27 March 2011]. Rakesh, 2011. Big Bazaar. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 20 March 2011]. Raman, A. Winig, L., 2006. Big Bazaar. Harvard Business Review, p.23. Rao, V.S.R., 2010. Big Bazaar. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 28 March 2011]. Sankar, M., 2009. Big Bazaar The hypermarket. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 26 March 2011]. Sumesh, 2008. Sasta Shopping. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 25 March 2011].

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Analyse the key features of Virtue Ethics Essay

Virtue ethics is a custom which goes back to Plato and Aristotle; it is also known as aretaic ethics, from the Greek word arà ªte meaning excellence or virtue. There are a number of key features to virtue ethics, one of the most significant being that it is an agent-centered theory rather than act-centered theory. Therefore it asks the questions ‘What sort of person ought I to be?’ rather than ‘How ought I to act’. The concept does not focus on actions being right or wrong, but on how to be a good/virtuous person. Virtue ethics was re-examined and redeveloped in the twentieth century by philosophers such as G.E.M. Anscombe. Plato proposed that virtue ethics centers around the achievement of man’s highest good, which involves the right cultivation of his soul and the harmonious well-being of his life, otherwise known as eudaimonia. Additionally, Cardinal virtues are a vital feature to the proposal of virtue ethics, examples are: temperance, courage, prudence and justice. These Plato seemed to consider central virtues and that, when these virtues are in balance, a person’s actions will be good. However, there was not much agreement among the Greek philosophers about which virtues were central, and Aristotle gives a very different account of the virtues. Aristotle highlighted a significant feature to the theory as he sought to give an account of the structure of morality and explained, in his book Nicomachean Ethics, that the point of engaging in ethics is to become ‘good’. Here, Aristotle differentiates between things which are good as means and things which are good as ends. Additionally, Anscombe argues that eudaimonia is the highest good because we desire it for its own sake, and not just as a means to anything else at all. Other good things, such a justice, are desired because they lead to a good life, whereas good living itself is not wanted for anything which it might lead to; it is inherently worth having. Aristotle, highlighting another feature of the ethic, suggests that human well-being and human flourishing is a life characterized by the virtues. However, this good human life is one  lived in harmony and co-operation with other people, since Aristotle saw people as not only rational beings but also as social beings. We live in groups and he saw the well-being of the group as more important than that of a single member. Moreover, Aristotle believed that the best way to achieve eudaimonia was to develop and exercise qualities that are most productive for living in a society. Extremes of behavior, such as being too timid at one extreme or too assertive at the other, are unhelpful to society. This led Aristotle to create a crucial feature of virtue ethics, what he called the Golden Mean, which can be explained as: striking the right balance between extremes. Each extreme he called a ‘vice’, and the midway point where the right balance is struck he called a ‘virtue’. However, the mean is not the same of everything and depends on circumstance – you need to apply phronesis to decide on the right course of action on each situation. Aristotle was convinced that virtue is something which we acquire and not something which we have when we are born; different people are not inherently good or bad, but become good or bad according to the habits they develop in themselves. Therefore, Aristotle highlighted a key feature in the ethic that it is not enough to have the know-how or even the habit of behaving as the virtuous person does, the actions are not as important as the character, and therefore the virtuous behavior must be done with the right motivation, as the virtuous person would do them. In the twentieth century there was a revival of interest in virtue ethics by philosophers who were unhappy with act-centered ethical theories. Stressing key features to the theory, modern versions of virtue ethics argue that the assessment of a person’s character is an important aspect to our ethical thought and needs to be included in any ethical theory. In 1958 G.E.M. Anscombe published a paper called ‘Modern Moral Philosophy’ where she argued that the concept of moral rules and of moral obligations is flawed. She attacked the traditions of Utilitarianism and of Kant, which both set out principles for people to follow and which look at the morality of different actions, rather than at the character of the person. Anscombe argued that the idea that we have obligations to keep rules makes no sense unless people believe in God. Without any absolute law-giver, there is no sense in following laws in ethics. She saw that ethical systems which try to establish rules even after the idea of God has been abandoned are incoherent, not recognizing that their basis depends on belief which many people no longer hold. For Anscombe, the way forward is to revive the concept of human ‘flourishing’, eudaimonia, which does not depend on any notion of God. Philippa Foot attempted to modernise Aristotle’s virtue ethics while still keeping the Aristotelian understanding of character and virtue. She recognises the significant features to the ethic, such as the importance of the person’s own reasoning in the practice of virtue, claims that the virtues benefit the individual by leading to flourishing and stresses that the virtuous person does far more than conform to the conventions of society. Foot argues that a virtue does not operate as a virtue when turned to a bad end. Virtues are good for us and also help us to correct harmful human passions and temptations. Additionally, in his book After Virtue, Alasdair Macintyre claims that ethical theories have simple resulted in ethical disagreements. The result if this, he suggests, is that people do not think there are any moral truths and consider one opinion to be as good as any other opinion. Macintyre argues that most people’s attitudes today are based on emotivism. Macintyre added a vital feature to the ethic, as he wanted to restore the idea that morality should be seen in terms of human purpose, but he thought it would not be possible to restore Aristotle’s theory of function and so he attempted to make human function, and so human virtue, depend on community. According to virtue ethics, morality is not found in actions or in duties, but in the person performing the actions, the ‘agent’. Thus morality should focus on the person, and not necessarily on the choices they make in their moral behavior. The theory concentrates on being, rather than doing, and this crucial feature results in the contrasts with other forms of ethics,  which aim to show how to discover the right course of action. Although the system is based on ideals, it is no unrealistic, because it looks to actual examples of virtuous people, such as Martin Luther King or Jesus; it can therefore be seen to have attainable targets. It’s aim is to achieve something which people genuinely want, eudaimonia, rather than being based on arguably incoherent ideas about the after-life. Evaluate the extent to which virtue ethics can withstand criticism. Virtue ethics encompasses all aspects of life rather than particular actions. It sees every moment as the possibility for acquiring or developing virtue. Virtue ethics provides an alternative route for drawing on the tradition of moral philosophy in a way that’s a different from the natural law approach. It’s an alternative ethical model that fits Christian ethics and also reaches beyond religious ethics. However, some Christians may argue that, in modern society, the extent of the relevance of the ethic can be considered insignificant as it focuses on the fundamental issues of what it means to be human, rather than looking for rules. Therefore, virtue ethics does not pretend to be able to tell us what a good person would do in every situation but encourages us to be more like such a person so that we will not need an ethical theory to make our decisions for us. This asset strengthens the theory, possibly increasing the extent to which it can withstand criticism as it stresses the importance of character, providing the example: someone who helps the poor out of compassion does seem to be morally superior to someone who does it out of duty. Multiple criticisms have been voiced about the theory and many have reduced the degree to which the concept is valued in modern day society. For example, one criticism leveled against virtue theory is that it is far from replacing the arguments about moral duty and moral absolutes, it ultimately depends on them. Walter Schaller, in his works, argues that moral virtues have only ‘instrumental or derivative value’. Virtue ethics relies on the concept of duty and the idea that there are moral norms or absolutes. This point undermines the significance of virtue theory, as Macintyre was trying to get away from the arguments about duty and moral actions. On the other hand, Robert Louden criticises the theory by questioning how virtue ethics can be applied to moral dilemmas. He argued that virtue ethics does not help people facing a crisis because it does not give any clear rules for action, for example what is the virtuous response to abortion? Virtue ethics does not provide any concrete answers and only says it is a matter for the practical wisdom of the person facing the situation. However, some Christians may argue that this statement can be counteracted as a strength of the theory as a lack of concrete answers allows personal choice and freedom to decide what is morally virtuous, increasing it’s ability to withstand criticism. Louden also points out that it is difficult to decide who is virtuous, as acts which appear virtuous on the outside may not necessarily have good motives and vice versa. Nevertheless, virtue ethics counteracts this criticism as it, as a theory, enables us to integrate many aspects of life, such as our social responsibilities, into our ethical reflection; it looks at what makes life valuable rather than looking at what is right or wrong. It does not reject our emotions but includes them, and so is more in-tune with how people naturally react to an ethical dilemma. It relates our ethical choices to the bigger picture. Additionally, it has been argued that virtue ethics does not seem to have room for basic concepts such as rights and obligations. This therefore reduces the theory’s ability to withstand the criticisms proposed of it and thus reducing how relevant the theory is. As a theory of ethics is seems incapable of dealing with big issues – virtue ethics does not always have a view about what makes an act right or wrong. It is vague, therefore it is hard to make decisions. Moreover, the theory counteracts the criticisms aimed at it through the use of examples of virtuous people. Virtue ethics stresses the importance of motivating people to want to be good. Shows how we acquire and learn virtues by intimidating others. Examples of these virtuous people are Martin Luther  King and Jesus who both fought for supreme happiness for society. Conversely, criticisms have been constantly weakening the theory through questions such as ‘What is happiness?’ and ‘Does Aristotle’s supreme happiness exist?’. It has been argued that virtue ethics depends on some final end which gives shape to our lives – there may not be one and being virtuous may not effect it anyway. These factors significantly weaken the extent to which the theory has survived criticism especially as the ethic seems to praise some virtues that Christians might see as immoral, such as soldiers fighting unjust wars may be courageous but that doesn’t make them morally good. However, the theory has also been vitally strengthened for modern society through its acceptability of bias behavior in favor of friends and family, unlike utilitarianism or Kant, which see impartiality as important. The relevance of the concept is also supported through it’s avoidance of following a formula, such as utilitarianism: ‘the greatest good for the greatest number’, to work out what we ought to do and focuses instead on the kind of person we ought to be. Therefore it is a more practical way of making a decision easily. Overall, even though the criticisms of the theory are vital in reducing the extent to which it is valued in this present day, the strengths of the theory provide society with an ethical guideline as to how to be and what makes a virtuous person.